jueves, 25 de mayo de 2017

Evidencias sobre los deberes: el meta-análisis de John Hatti

Cero en primaria, entre moderado y grande en secundaria



"Los estudios de meta-análisis de John Hattie (que incluyen más de 50.000 estudios), en su última actualización (2016), otorgan a los deberes un factor de impacto medio de 0,29. Este valor es la media entre el tamaño del efecto de los deberes en secundaria y en Primaria. Si desglosamos los resultados, encontramos que en Primaria, los deberes tienen un tamaño de efecto de 0, mientras que en Secundaria su valor es de 0,5. El tamaño del efecto es un concepto que se utiliza en estadística para cuantificar la relación entre dos variables (en este caso entre “deberes” y “resultados escolares“). Así, se considera que una variable tiene un efecto pequeño si su valor es de 0 a 0,20; un efecto moderado si está entre 0,20 a 0,50; y un efecto grande si pasa de los 0,50 puntos. Si los valores fueran negativos, significaría que una variable produce un efecto negativa sobre otra. 
Estos resultados sitúan a los deberes en la posición 113 del ránking de variables educativas analizadas. Esto significa que, hasta 112 variables educativas presentan mayores efectos sobre el resultado académico de los niños que los deberes
[…] John Hattie es claro en sus conclusiones: “los deberes, como se han hecho tradicionalmente, no funcionan” Puedes ver el video de su exposición Homework and ist value.
Existen muchas más organizaciones que han emitido sus conclusiones tras analizar multitud de estudios sobre deberes. La mayoría de ellas coinciden en señalar que los deberes en primaria no tienen apenas efecto, y que el efecto es mayor a medida que se va a avanzando de nivel educativo. Además, algunos investigadores han señalado que el efecto de los deberes disminuye para aquellos niños de familias en desventaja social, ya que tienen menor acceso a recursos educativos desde casa." 
Fuente: ¿Qué nos dice la evidencia sobre los deberes? 4.2.2017
Puedes consultar todas la variables aquí o en el desplegable.

Factor
Effect Size
Teacher credibility
0.9
Micro teaching
0.88
Cognitive task analysis
0.87
Classroom discussion
0.82
Interventions for the disabled
0.77
Interventions for the learning disabled
0.77
Teacher clarity
0.75
Reciprocal teaching
0.74
Feedback
0.73
Acceleration
0.68
Formative evaluation
0.68
Creativity programs
0.65
Concept mapping
0.64
Self questioning
0.64
*Prior achievement
0.63
Classroom behavioural
0.63
Teaching problem-solving
0.63
Time on-task
0.62
Vocabulary programs
0.62
Not labelling students
0.61
Direct Instruction
0.6
Repeated reading programs
0.6
Spaced practice
0.6
Study skills
0.6
Teaching strategies
0.6
Preterm birth weight
0.59
Service learning
0.58
Spelling programs
0.58
Tactile stimulation program
0.58
CAI with learning-disabled students
0.57
Mastery learning
0.57
Preschool with at risk students
0.56
CAI with other students
0.55
Cooperative learning compared to individual learning
0.55
Peer tutoring
0.55
Visual perception programs
0.55
Interactive video methods
0.54
Socio-economic status
0.54
Classroom cohesion
0.53
Comprehension programs
0.53
Cooperative learning compared to competitive learning
0.53
Metacognitive strategies
0.53
Peer influences
0.53
Scaffolding
0.53
Classroom management
0.52
Frequent effects of testing
0.52
Home environment
0.52
Phonics instruction
0.52
Teacher-student relationships
0.52
2nd chance programs (e.g. Reading Recovery)
0.5
Play programs
0.5
Mathematics
0.49
Parental involvement
0.49
Writing programs
0.49
Questioning
0.48
School effects
0.48
*Self-concept
0.47
Integrated curriculum programs
0.47
Small group learning
0.47
Student rating of teaching
0.47
Computer assisted instruction
0.45
Concentration and engagement
0.45
Relative age within the class
0.45
CAI instruction with college students
0.44
CAI with primary students
0.44
Early intervention
0.44
Motivation
0.44
Science programs
0.44
Communication strategies
0.43
Intelligent tutoring system
0.43
Outdoor adventure progress
0.43
Philosophy in schools
0.43
School size
0.43
Teacher expectations
0.43
CAI instructional in writing
0.42
Comprehensive instructional
0.42
Exposure to reading
0.42
Behavioural organisers
0.41
After-school programs
0.4
Goals
0.4
Social skills programs
0.4
Cooperative learning
0.39
Career interventions
0.38
Enrichment
0.38
Dramatic arts programs
0.37
Gaming simulations
0.37
Music based programs
0.37
Psychotherapy programs
0.37
Worked examples
0.37
*Reducing anxiety
0.36
Student centred learning
0.36
*Creativity
0.35
Attitude to content domains
0.35
Bilingual programs
0.35
Inquiry-based teaching
0.35
Adjunct aids
0.34
Decreasing disruptive behaviour
0.34
Various teaching on creativity
0.34
Head start programs
0.33
Inductive teaching
0.33
Preschool programs
0.33
Principals and school leaders
0.33
Drugs
0.32
*Ethnicity
0.32
Other digital tools
0.32
Teacher effects
0.32
Systems accountability
0.31
Ability grouping for gifted students
0.3
CAI in mathematics
0.3
CAI with high school students
0.3
Collaborative learning
0.29
Homework
0.29
Mobile phones
0.29
Desegregation
0.28
Home visiting
0.28
Early intervention in the home
0.27
Teaching test taking
0.27
Use of calculators
0.27
CAI in reading
0.26
Use of PowerPoint
0.26
Volunteer tutors
0.26
Early interventions
0.25
Married parents vs. divorced parents
0.25
Teaching reforms
0.25
Bullying
0.24
Illness
0.24
Mainstreaming
0.24
Religious schools
0.24
Values education
0.24
CAI in science
0.23
Competitive vs. individual instruction
0.23
Finances
0.23
Individualised instruction
0.23
Matching style of learning
0.23
Programmed instruction
0.23
Summer school
0.23
Exercise and relaxation activities
0.22
Teacher verbal ability
0.22
Visual audio/visual methods
0.22
CAI in small groups
0.21
Class size
0.21
Extracurricular programs
0.21
School cultural effects
0.2
Aptitude/treatment interactions
0.19
Learning hierarchies
0.19
School counselling effects
0.19
Team teaching
0.19
Family structure
0.18
Special college programs
0.18
Web-based learning
0.18
Within class grouping
0.18
*Personality
0.17
Adopted children
0.16
Home school programs
0.16
Teacher immediacy
0.16
Out of school curricula
0.15
Sentence combining programs
0.15
Distance education
0.13
Ability grouping
0.12
Diet
0.12
Juvenile delinquent programs
0.12
Problem-based learning
0.12
Teacher education
0.12
Diversity of students
0.11
Detracting
0.09
Mentoring
0.09
School calendars and timetables
0.09
Subject matter knowledge
0.09
Gender
0.08
Perceptual-motor programs
0.08
Single sex schools
0.08
Charter schools
0.07
Sleep
0.07
Types of testing
0.06
Whole language
0.06
College halls of residence
0.05
Multiage classes
0.04
CAI in distance education
0.01
Open vs. traditional classrooms
0.01
Parental employment
0.01
Student control over learning
0.01
Summer vacation
-0.02
Welfare policies
-0.12
Retention
-0.17
Television
-0.18
Home corporal punishment
-0.33
Mobility
-0.34
Depression
-0.42

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